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Maven Unicorns – Interviewing the Data

Maven’s data challenge for April-May 2022 involves the analysis of a set of data related to “Unicorns”.

A few of my work colleagues saw my LinkedIn post related to the announcement of this challenge, and thought I was looking at data related to the horsey-type unicorns, and they were pleasantly amused at the thought.

Needless to say, they now understand what the term means in a business sense (as I had learned what it meant a mere 48 hours beforehand).

Anyway, this is a shorter than usual blog post related to my initial approach to this challenge, and again links back to an earlier post I made in LinkedIn about a technique I picked up from Ben Jones in a SWD podcast he had with Cole Nussbaumer Knaflic.

In it, he described how we can take on the role of a journalist, and list out the questions we would like to “ask” the data in order to draw out information that you could use to build a structured story or article with real depth of meaning.

Step 1 – Looking at the type of data

I did not wish to look directly at the data initially in case it skewed or biased my view on the questions I might be able to ask. This is where a data dictionary comes in very handy. It helps give an overview and context for the subject without giving too much away about the content.

The below is the data dictionary provided with the dataset.

FieldDescription
CompanyCompany name
ValuationCompany valuation in billions (B) of dollars
Date JoinedThe date in which the company reached $1 billion in valuation
IndustryCompany industry
CityCity the company was founded in
CountryCountry the company was founded in
ContinentContinent the company was founded in
Year FoundedYear the company was founded
FundingTotal amount raised across all funding rounds in billions (B) or millions (M) of dollars
Select InvestorsTop 4 investing firms or individual investors (some have less than 4)

From an initial review, I divided the types of data up into several categories which could help me form a list of questions

  • Dates – These can help form time and trend related questions
  • Money – These can form queries on average values, return on investment and growth
  • Geography – These can help make comparisons at several hierarchical levels
  • Companies – These can assist in analysis at both high and detailed levels from both and company and investor viewpoint

Now this initial breakdown was complete, I could move on to developing a list of questions I could potentially “ask” the data and form the crux of my analysis.

Step 2 – Ask the Questions Already!

OK, so here are a shortlist of questions I made, along with some “subquestions”. I explored and used some of them in my final design, but left them all listed here in case they help fire the imagination of anyone else in their journey.

Questions Related to Date/Time

  1. Are unicorns a recent phenomena, and is there any trend over the past number of years in the number of unicorns being created? How is this trending with the overall economy?
  2. How long does a company typically take to become a unicorn? Is this impacted by the type of industry or country? Is there any apparent trend over time?
  3. Are there certain industries which have become more prevalent in recent years as opposed to say 10 or 20 years ago?

Questions Related to Companies, Money, Funding and Growth

  1. Which industries make up the majority of unicorns and have the highest average valuations?
  2. Which industry or country is seeing the most funding from venture capitalists, and are there any particular industries providing high capital investment return rates?
  3. Which industry or company has experienced the highest or lowest value annual growth rate since joining the unicorn club?
  4. Are investors typically attracted to particular industries, or do they “spread their bets”?

Questions Related to Location

  1. Where in the world (cities, countries or continents) are the highest prevalence for unicorns? Has this changed over time?
  2. Is there any connection between these locations and the type of industry?
  3. Where in the world has the highest value unicorns or those that provide the highest investment return rates?
  4. How do unicorns measure up against % GDP of GDP per capita in particular countries? (might need some additional data for this one!)
  5. Are unicorns confined to historic world powers, or are emerging markets and countries taking a lead?

Step 3 – Start your analysis

It would maybe not be wise to attempt to answer all these questions, but maybe focus on a selection that you think will tell a story to “illustrate the current landscape of unicorn companies around the globe“.

I will leave you here with at least an alternative technique to approaching these challenges, and hopefully also a little inspiration or some ideas to start or evaluate your own approach.

Below is my final result of answering at least one or two questions from each section.

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Maven Remote Work Challenge – Strategy Execution

Before we start….

There was quite a bit to this challenge, so I am covering it in one blog and one video. This one will look at the strategy and execution of the planned steps I laid out in a LinkedIn post and in the below photo shot; the separate video looks at the technical aspects of cleaning and manipulating the data, as well as assembling the visuals.

For anyone who has stumbled across this blog accidently, and is not familiar with the challenge, details can be found here.

So let’s begin!

As well as Maven providing the raw data from the remote work survey and some background on the contents, the below is what I took as the brief for the challenge, with the crux purposely highlighted in bold by the Maven team.

For this challenge, your task is to assess the productivity and morale implications of working remotely and outline an ideal policy for the post-pandemic future, presented in the form of a single-page report or dashboard.

Maven Remote Challenge Blog

I used this as the basis for my overall plan for the challenge, which I quickly drafted up using the old school pen and paper method.

Now that was done, it was time to put the plan into motion….

Part A – Considering Outcomes and Goals

When reviewing the brief, I asked myself a few questions that would dictate my outcomes and goals.

  • Why am I actually creating this report / dash?
  • Who is it for?
  • What decision needs to be made as a result of it?
  • What can I do by way of design to facilitate that decision process?

Apart from wanting to compete in the Maven challenge, I am creating this report to summarize a large amount of survey data and analyze how remote work impacts productivity and morale among workers.

In terms of “Who?” and “What decision?”, I considered my key stakeholder to be the senior management at a generic company, and anticipated that they would require a high level assessment with a summary of the positive and negative affects of remote working on mainly productivity, but also morale, and how this would shape how employees felt about remote work. This would in turn help the company decide on what plans they would need to enact in a post-COVID world.

After mulling over these questions and answers, it was fairly straightforward in my mind that my overall outcomes would include:

  • Outlining the basis for an ideal future remote working policy for a company
  • Consider any implications (positive or negative) on worker morale and wellbeing
  • Measure how productivity was impacted during remote working
  • Summarize the above in a high level explanatory report

These aspects, as well as the fact the requirement was for a single page static report/dash, meant that firstly, I would be analyzing at a high level rather than a granular level. The only reason to go to a granular level would be to analyze a specific industry or demographic, which I did not consider part of my brief (rightly or wrongly).

Secondly, I would also be looking to produce and explanatory set of visuals rather than an exploratory set.

What’s the difference?

Exploratory vs Explanatory

The storytelling with data blog will define this more eloquently than me, but basically an exploratory report would allow the user to manipulate data through filters and slicers and search for their own answers to questions they may have. For explanatory reports, someone has already done the “exploration” on the data, and is presenting what are hopefully the key points with supporting data and visuals.

Part B – Metrics and Comparisons

Now a general approach has been defined, I looked at potential comparisons and metrics that would be used to determine company policy. I needed to keep in mind that if a company is going to base their policy on these, they need to be robust enough to allow a decision to be made.

You may think it’s strange as I haven’t mentioned looking at the data yet, so how would I know what metrics or comparisons I will be able to make?

While this is true, I believe it is good to have an idea of what the most appropriate metrics could be in order to fulfil your brief, even before you look at the data in any kind of detail.

Productivity

I know I have two data sets, one for 2020 and one for 2021. The obvious metrics would be to try and measure productivity in each separate year, and then do a year-over-year (YoY) comparison. If data is also available, I could also look at a further comparison with “normal working” productivity. This will tell me whether remote working has had a positive or negative effect and whether that was sustained between 2020 and 2021.

Morale

Similar to productivity, I would look at changes in any issues that may affect morale or working conditions between “normal work” and the periods of remote work in 2020 and 2021. Again, if possible, I would like to see how the stats change over time.

General Opinion

I am guessing that the survey will ask people’s opinions of working remotely, and whether they are generally in favour of it and whether they would like to retain it as a benefit long term. If so, I could measure any change over time, or the ratio of people in favour versus those not in favour, and this could also feed into the overall future policy to be developed.

Part C – Reviewing the Data

With ultimate goals and an idea of the type of metrics I feel would fulfil the brief, it was time to look at the data itself.

This was a little dauting at first. It wasn’t the fact that each survey had around 1,500 respondents; rather it was that the 2020 survey had 73 questions, and the 2021 survey had 109 questions. Add to that, many of the questions were quite lengthy, and were the headings of each column. This made it quite difficult to know exactly what you were looking at!

Quick solution

My quick solution for reviewing? Copy and transpose the head row from each file into a new table.  This makes it much easier to read, and easier to see how many of the questions are actually grouped together.

It also allowed me to add a few columns to each table aligned to the metrics. As I reviewed each years’ questions I could tick whether I thought particular questions may be related to assessing morale, productivity or an overall policy. Having this list also came in very handy as a reference when the data was eventually loaded into Power BI.

As an example of the transposed table, below is a sample of a few questions from the 2020 and 2021 files that would touch on productivity.

2020 survey – productivity
2021 survey – productivity

Also, to assist anyone that may try out the challenge, I have added a copy of a blank file that could be used to conduct this exercise.

Once I reviewed and listed out all the questions I thought were applicable to my goals, I was happy to move onto the next step and start some provisional review and analysis of the survey results.

Part D – Pull in Data and Develop Plan

There were two distinct csv files for the surveys, and I loaded them into Power Query and Power BI. The respondents in each survey are not linked, therefore there was no immediate need to link the files via a model.

On reviewing the questions and answers for each data set, I narrowed my focus to a limited set that I could build a plan around. This allowed me to create a storyboard and then further detail each aspect – all of which is laid out below.

Storyboard

I usually try to sketch together a outline plan or storyboard when I have reviewed the data and have a general idea of what I want to show and how I want it to structure and flow. There are usually a few changes along the way, as you will see in the final product. However, you will note here that I wanted to show a main headline to capture productivity, morale and the policy, and then expand on each aspect in separate sections.

Productivity – Self Assessment

I wanted to calculate the productivity ratings in 2020 and 2021 and compare. Both surveys had a similar question to ask how the employee rated their own productivity when compared to working in the workplace. As such, I could use it as an effective comparison.

The answers were categorised in a large number of % values displaying degrees of more, less or the same productivity. I decided to combine and reduce the number of categories to 5, as shown below in my sandbox draft version. I also wanted to show the % change for each category to emphasize the increase in productivity between the two years, also shown below. Text could be further added to further summarize and explain the point.

Productivity – Management Assessment

As the above were self-assessments, I wanted to develop the next level of narrative and to see if managers saw the same impacts on productivity. I was able to find a survey question directed to managers, to see how they rated the productivity of their own employees.

Productivity – Occupation

To complete my narrative on productivity, I wanted to go slightly more granular. The results so far were showing generally improved productivity, but for balance I wanted to see if there were particular occupations that were more likely to experience lower productivity. This could allow management to then potentially request further analysis if their companies had employees that had occupations with low rates of productivity.

Morale – Barriers

There were no questions in the surveys which explicitly dealt with morale; however, I noted that in 2021 there were a set of questions related to potential barriers to remote working, and whether people had improved, worsened or largely the same experiences for each barrier when compared to normal working. These barriers included issues such as:

  • motivation
  • isolation
  • health
  • collaboration
  • poor management

I took these as being related to morale. I consolidated these queries using an unpivot technique in Power Query, and again consolidated the ratings to a simple three ratings of, “worsened”, “same/no barrier” or “improved”. This allowed me to quickly see how each issue affected employees in 2021.

To supplement this, I noticed there were additional related standalone questions related to isolation, health and wellbeing. My plan was to bring these all together in an extended visual with a supporting narrative (see below draft result). It was also an opportunity to try out Gestalt’s principle of connection by boxing around some of the bar chart graphics in an attempt to connect them.

Sandbox sample graphs for morale

Morale – Working Times

From looking at the data and seeing that people were more active and feeling better, I thought then next level would be to examine the typical working day to see what impact remote work was having on people’s general activities.

There were a set of questions in 2021 related to hours people were assigning to daily tasks. I note there were similar questions in 2020, but there were significant errors in the arithmetic, which meant I could not make an equivalent comparison, and therefore discarded them.

I again performed an unpivot of columns in Power Query to consolidate the data, and found an average significant drop in time required for commuting (expected), and an increase in time for personal and family time, which you could potentially relate to increased wellbeing and morale. This was in spite of people actually working slightly longer workday on average.

Policy – Employee Expectations

Finally, I thought the policy section should provide the story arc to bring the productivity and morale factors together. I came across a question that I thought could knit it together – This was how much time employees wished to work remotely in the future.

Again, the answers were categorised into % values in intervals of 10, with some text answers also. I decided to consolidate these into day values to give a more simplified and easier to read view. This would show management that there was significant appetite from employees to work remotely, but that there was also a large number of people who wanted very minimal or no remote work. I highlighted this in red to purposely draw attention, and show there was a potential need for flexibility.

Policy – Retention and Attraction

Finally, and to again supplement the above with closely related data, there were questions to managers as to whether they believed offering remote working would improve employee retention and also attract new talent. Instead of using charts or graphs for these types of supplements, I decided to just use aggregated numbers and supporting text.

Stitch it all together

Once I had completed all my visuals in separate sandbox tabs, I copied them into a combined report/dash, which resembled the sketch I had shown earlier as my initial storyboard.

My initial draft was complete, and I added some summary headings to each section to highlight the key take-aways from each set of charts.

I was reasonably happy with the draft, but I wasn’t quite finished just yet.

Part E – Review Outcomes and Goals

I felt that individual components of my goals had been achieved by each of the visuals I had included, as well as how they were grouped.

However, as part of my review, I took a tip from storytelling with data and Maven’s thinking like an analyst course, and used the opportunity to get feedback from a member of the Maven community, and also one of my subscribers to this blog (Marjolein Opsteegh).

After working with the data on and off for a few days, the intention was to step back and get a set of fresh eyes to briefly study the collection of visuals and see if it was relatively understood, and whether it flowed naturally and captured the brief.

Marjolein was generous enough to take the time to give some constructive feedback and criticism, which is a real learning process I actually enjoy. There were some general layout and formatting tips, but the crucial comment was to bring the overall outcomes and policy to the fore, and put them top and centre of the dash, rather than at the bottom which I had in my draft.

Part F – Fine Tune and Submit

After the review, I rearranged the running order of the dashboard, which made the summary and overall policy the first thing you see. I then followed it by productivity and morale, with some slight formatting on the headers.

Overall, I was quite pleased with the result, and was happy to apply some of the techniques I had been reading about in Cole Nussbaumer Knaflic’s storytelling with data book, a highly recommended read.

One change I might like to make after having the chance to look at it for a few days however, might be to increase the overall size of the visual, and provide a little more white space to give some of the visuals a little more breathing space from each other.

[UPDATE: As noted at the intro – I opted to support this blog with a walkthrough video of creating each of the visuals, especially those that used the unpivot and consolidation functions in Power Query] – for further work on Maven Challenges, stay tuned on LinkedIn, follow my twitter account which is notified when I write a blog, or alternatively just follow this blog.

Any feedback or queries, please drop them in the comments below – Thanks!

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Maven Motors Challenge – My Plan and Strategy

After submitting my Power BI report on LinkedIn as part of the Maven Super Bowl Challenge, I was messaged by a few people asking if I could put together an article or video blog on how I created it. So, here I am!!

Rather than jumping onto the snapshots of the Power BI platform and going through the process of putting the visuals together, I thought I would take a few steps back, and go through the plan and strategy I now go through before attempting these types of challenges, as without that you can often create a confused message. I pick up new lessons with every challenge, and find it an excellent form of self-development.

Final Submission

My Key Steps in Planning and Strategizing

For this particular challenge, I broke my process down into the following steps, but they are equally applicable to other work I do:

  1. Read the Brief
  2. Consider the End User
  3. Summarise Scope and Objectives
  4. Review the Raw Data
  5. Consider available metrics
  6. Develop a story or flow
  7. Sketch your layout and structure
  8. Execute, Review and Polish

Step 1 – Read the Brief

The challenge noted the following:

We’ve just added a brand new data set to the Data Playground, containing data from Super Bowl commercials for 10 popular brands this century

and

For this challenge, you’ll be assuming the role of Marketing Analyst at Maven Motors, an up-and-coming US car manufacturer looking to make a splash in the market. They have approved the budget to run a TV spot during the 2022 Super Bowl, but need you to analyze historical data to help guide the creative direction.

Your task is to recommend a data-driven strategy for the Maven Motors Super Bowl spot, and present it in the form of a single page report or dashboard.

They are asking you for two things, namely to “analyze the historical data to help guide the creative direction…” and to “….recommend a data-driven strategy for the Maven Motors Super Bowl spot.”

So, we need to keep these two points in the forefront of our mind as we progress.

Step 2 – Consider the End User

Perhaps the most important step and question to ask yourself – who am I creating this report for and how do I want them to feel when they look at it? This will dictate the style, format and presentation.

For example, the Harry Potter challenge or the Jordan vs LeBron challenge would encourage the use of colours, graphics and specialised visuals to engage the general viewer and add an element of fun and excitement.

My Harry Potter Magic Submission

However, as this challenge is aimed at the decision makers within a large corporation, the style and format should be very different. For this, if I imagined being in their shoes, I would like to see the following type of summary report or dashboard:

  • Structured – easy to read and flows well
  • Professional – the product should align with the standards and values of the company
  • Related to the brief – no need for superfluous information that distracts or wastes time, something I don’t have a lot of!
  • Comprehensive but to the point – only pick and present the key findings
  • Able to invite a decision – use the data and recommendations to enable an easy decision to be made

Step 3 – Summarise Scope and Objectives

Following Project Management 101 techniques, I then documented my scope and objectives. This may seem like a duplication of the above, but is helpful as a reference to always come back to. For this reason, I usually write this out and have it sitting to the side to glance at as I work on the final solution:

Scope Notes

In case you can’t read my writing:

Scope

  • Provide a 1 Page Report
  • Analyze Historical Data
  • Provide Recommendations for a data-driven strategy

Objectives

  • Enable board members, who are “time-poor” people, to have sufficiently succinct information in order to make a key decision on the direction of the marketing strategy
  • Be clear, concise and professional
  • Enable board members to be confident in your analysis (i.e. structure, methodology, analysis all appear credible, therefore we can put a measure of trust in the recommendations).

Step 4 – Review the Raw Data

It’s only now that I actually come to open the data files and look to see what is in there.

I found that, having performed the above steps, when I started looking at the data I was immediately considering whether this particular type of information or column was relevant to my brief or objectives.

I will try and briefly go through the my main thoughts when reviewing the data (below snapshot for 2000 and 2001), and how it related back to the scope, and what I would look at for more detailed analysis.

I would note at this point that this usually takes a few days, as I often like to let it ferment a little while I sip on a flat white or two.

2000-2001 data snapshot

Data Not Considered Relevant

Here’s point number oneNOT ALL DATA WILL BE RELEVANT.

Therefore, it was important to put aside any items that are not particularly useful in relation to the scope of works. Looking at the above table, these are highlighted in light blue.

Individual Brands

You may argue that the brand is important, but I would argue otherwise.

What’s the difference between Coke and Pepsi, or Bud and Bud Light in the context of this data? I don’t think this data set is going to tell you especially with the individual sample sizes.

What may give insight is the type of brand (food, cars, alcohol, etc. which I will address later). So for me, I took the decision to ignore individual brands.

The links themselves have no data analysis value for me here. Their only use may be to look at the actual ads, or provide a link in your dashboard or report. Therefore, I ignored these.

Estimated Cost

You may think- Wowwww! How can you ignore cost??? Well, I am not totally ignoring cost, but the total cost provides little insight, as there is the variable of ad length to consider.

The longer the ad, the higher the cost, right?

So, I checked if there is a correlation with a quick cost/time calculation. Guess what? The $ cost per second is constant for each year. Therefore I ignored the total cost, and focussed on the $ cost per second instead.

YouTube Likes

Again, you may wonder why I might be interested in YouTube views, but not likes? Well, this is my personal insight. I watch a lot of YouTube, and I enjoy a lot of what I watch, but I rarely feel the need to click “like” – I would be more likely to subscribe. I heard that YouTube itself does not place too much importance on “likes” these days too, they are more likely to track views, duration, click through, etc.

Additionally, the number of views is not underestimating the number of people who have engaged with the video (even if they only watched for a few seconds), but the number of likes will actually underestimate the number of people who actually like the video, as it is not compulsory to click the like button if you liked it! Again, I knocked that one off my analysis list.

TV Viewers

This may or may not be another surprise to some. If you take the time to look at the TV views for any given year, you will see they are pretty much constant – see below ( I recall there was one outlier). You can read into this that the money you pay to advertise during the Super Bowl is giving you the direct access to everyone that is watching.

As it is constant, the duration, brand, type, etc. are not directly impacting the number of viewers. I would only take this into account if you had a live feed of figures while the ads were being watched.

So, you guessed it, I kicked TV Viewers to the kerb!

TV Viewers – Year 2000

Data Considered Relevant

OK, ok….. so I have pretty much now ignored a large part of the dataset. So what exactly am I actually interested in, and what information relevant to the scope do I think I can get out of it? Well, let’s see now….

Year

An easy one – we want to potentially see how our variables change over time, so we will definitely be keeping Year

Brand Category

With ten brands, its a little difficult to compare. However if we can reduce this to a smaller set of categories, it may be of benefit. In the back of my mind, I was thinking that as Maven Motors is a motor company, it might be useful to look at the performance of Kia, Hyundai and Toyota as a group, rather than as individual companies as it effectively provides a larger single sample size.

Following that, it made sense to group the others into Alcohol, Snacks and Drinks, Sports and Services, and see if there were any trends among those categories.

By the way, I created a YouTube video showing you how to create those categories.

Video Characteristics

It was difficult to glean any real insight into the 7 categories without more detailed analysis. Further, it is part of the brief to influence the “creative direction” of the advertisement. Therefore, it was a no-brainer to retain this data.

Again, I created YouTube video actually showing you how to “unpivot” these characteristics for more effective analysis.

Length

Further, I saw that there were varying lengths of ads, and there may be a potential trend over time which may allow me to impart some recommendation on what the current trend is – so that was kept in too.

YouTube Views

I retained this as one of my key data points. As Maven Motors were already gaining access to the TV network through having a large marketing budget, I believed that a true test of whether an ad was “creatively successful” (viral), was whether people then took the time to seek it out on YouTube to watch again, or felt the need to share it with friends, family and their social networks.

$/s

As discussed earlier, I saw that the $/s for advertisements was constant for each year, which makes sense. I kept and used this data point as I would be able to see the trend in cost over time and potentially give further assurance to the board on likely final expenditure (even though budgets were already approved).

Number of Ads per Brand per Year

One further data point I noticed was that some brands were having more than one ad per year. The below example shows Budweiser using 13 ads over 4 Super Bowl events. Again, this is something I thought would be interesting to look at further to see if there were additional recommendations I could make on the potential number of ads to run.

Budweiser Ads – 2000 – 2003

Step5 – Consider Available Metrics

Considering all of the above, I came up with the following list of data points or metrics I wished to examine and present and make data-driven recommendations on:

The number of ads in a campaign year – What was the average number of ads per year per brand category.

Ad Duration – what is considered a standard ad length, and what is the trend over time telling us we should do this year.

$/second – what is the historical trend in ad cost, and see if we can forecast the range for the coming year.

Average YouTube Views vs Ad Characteristics – analyze the each characteristic and see which is more likely to garner additional views.

Step 6 and 7 – Develop a Story or Flow and Sketch Out

The next steps were to capture the entire process above is a single structured sheet that would form my final report. My story needed to:

  • Set the scene (provide context),
  • Lay out my methodology,
  • Establish the scope of the data analysed
  • Present the key data and insights
  • Give a summary recommendation

Again, I find it useful to sketch this out on a piece of paper (see below), along with even some potential visuals I have in my head.

I note that for this report I included a significant amount of text. This was on purpose as one of my key objectives was to enable the the board members to have confidence in my analysis. I felt that if I laid out the context, methodology and recommendations in clear concise language, that is then further backed up by data, this will provide that level of confidence required in such situations.

Report Structure Sketch

Step 8 – Execute, Review and Polish

Once the above it set, it is now a matter of prepping and cleaning any data (categorization, etc.), establishing the measures, then building the visuals into the structure I had envisaged.

One thing I like about Tableau is creating visuals on separate pages, and then constructing a final dashboard. I sometimes replicate that feel in Power BI, where I will trial and build individual visuals on separate tabs before bringing them in. Below are a few samples.

Data Scope and Ad Length Visuals

This gets the concepts down, so I know the type of data I want to show and in what general format.

Options for Ad Characteristics – Phase 1

I will experiment with how things are presented and how well the visual can communicate the point I want to make.

Options for Add Characteristics – Phase 2

Once I am comfortable with the concept, I will look to “polish” it. What does this mean to me?

Polishing Steps

As I said, once I am happy with the story, flow, structure and type of visuals I am using, I will move on to “polish”, which for me usually involves the following:

  • Selecting an appropriate colour theme/palette and applying consistent colours for headings, text and visuals. There are lots of websites that help generate themes and palettes.
  • Apply consistent fonts and font sizes
  • Remove superfluous information:
    • axis titles (if already obvious)
    • axis values (if using data labels)
    • repeated legends, which can be done with use of consistent colouring
    • gridlines, axis lines, etc. unless really needed
    • give concise visual titles
    • any other item that is not conveying
  • Align titles, text boxes, visuals (the eagle eyed will note a few of my visuals are off centre!)
  • Provide consistent spacings

Applying these steps allows me to move from the above visuals to the below final versions, which I believe met my goal of giving clean, concise and professional looking visuals.

If you have made it to the end of this, congratulations!! I apologise that my blogs are maybe not as short and to the point as my dashboard, but I hope this provided some insight into the process I took in developing my challenge submission, and maybe provided you with some tips and tricks for the next one.

Let me know what you think – would you change anything, or do you have a good alternative approach? I would be interested to hear.

Also, If you would like to see a video version of this and maybe some exploration of actually creating the above visuals, leave a comment below, or drop me a message on LinkedIn.

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Maven Analytics – Harry Potter Challenge

Using Power Query to match number of particular spells to characters

When I first saw the new Maven Magic Challenge description, I was drawn to the words “share a…visual that captures the MAGIC. And so, when I started looking at the data I had little real interest in the budgets, box office and run times. It was all about the characters, their journey, and the spells they cast… both in the movies and on the movie goers.

Connecting the Places and Spells to the Characters

So, I started to look at how I could connect the story characters and their dialogues to the magical places around the Potter universe, and the data as it was arranged allowed me to do that without too much hassle.

I then came to look at the data associated with the spells. There was no path in the dataset as provided that allowed me to directly link the spells both to the characters, the dialogues and the places. All it would allow me to do is look at them in isolation, which was no good!!

The challenge of this data set was officially set – how can I link the spells to the dialogue, and then onto the characters and places, and how can I pull this weaving story into a single page visual???

I came up with two methods to try and achieve this

My first method would be to count the number of spells cast by a character. The next would be to also identify the type and name of each individual spell cast.

It was time to cast those “spells”…..Powerus Querio!!

Method 1 – Calculating the Number of Spells Cast by a Character

Step 1 – Create a List of Spells

I needed to create a separate list containing only the incantations from the spell file. So, I imported a copy of the “Spells” csv file. I then selected the Incantation column and the Transform tab, selected Convert to List (shown below) and muttered “Reducio” under my breath.

Voila! The file was reduced to a single list of the spell incantations, as shown below. I would use this list as a reference to look at instances where the incantations were mentioned in the character dialogue. Keep reading to find out more!

Step 2 – Searching the Dialogue for Incantations

The next step was to search the Dialogue for any of the line items from my newly acquired list. I imported the Dialogue csv, then set to work deploying a combination of List.Count and Splitter.SplitTextByAnyDelimeter. The line of M code I used was:

= Table.AddColumn(#"Changed Type", "No. of Spells - Splitter", each List.Count(Splitter.SplitTextByAnyDelimiter(Spells)([Dialogue])) -1)

This would count the number of times a spell was mentioned in the line of dialogue. Let me explain a little how this works, starting from the inside out.

Splitter.SplitTextByAnyDelimeter(Spells)[Dialogue]

This code allows us to work through the lines of dialogue, and when it meets a spell from our list, it effectively stops and splits that line into a list. This new mini list will contain a separate line for each time a spell is encountered, and will have a final line to dump the text from the dialogue that does not appear in the spell list.

This new mini list does not capture which spell it has encountered, only that it has encountered one. In fact, it returns a blank line each time it finds a spell. Confused? I was a little. The below picture may help visualize it.

List.Count – Wrap Around

The Text Splitter does not do a whole lot on it’s own. Therefore, the next piece of the puzzle was to wrap it in a List.Count. This would count the number of items in each mini list we have created. However, as the above shows, it would count once for the spell, and once for the remaining text.

The next action would be to add “-1”. The result would be to give us a count of the number of times an incantation from our list had been used in the dialogue. See below example highlighting where a count has been made of an incantation.

Step 3 – Tidy Up

The final step in this initial tidy up is simply to filter the column for values greater than zero. You have now identified all the lines of dialogue that contain an incantation, as well the numbers of incantations used – sometimes there was more than 1 – see below.

Not Satisfied Yet!!!!!!

Method 2 – Extracting the name of the spells cast by each character

Step 1 – Custom Column with List

Create a list of Spells in the same way as Method 1, Step 1 above – Easy as!

Step 2 – Add Spells List to Dialogue Line Items

Add a custom column to your dialogue sheet in Power Query called “Find Spell”, and simply add “= Spells” and hit ok. You will see a new column added containing the word List in each cell. This list contains the full list of spells.

Step 3 – Expanded List

This next step may not be recommended for very large data sets, like the Maven Taxi Challenge, but it performs fine here.

We will now expand the list. This is done by clicking on the double arrows and selecting “Expand to New Rows” as shown below.

This will then duplicate each line of dialogue to equal the number of spells in our list. Below is an example, where we see the line of dialogue repeated, with each spell listed beside it. The reason for doing this will become clear below.

Step 4 – Find the Spell

Next we can use a Boolean calculation in a custom column to find if our line of dialogue contains the spell that is living in the “Find Spell” column.

I have used Text.Contains([Dialogue],[Find Spell]) . This will look at the text in the Dialogue column and see if it contains the text shown in the corresponding Find Spell column. If it finds it, it will return TRUE, and if not it will return FALSE. See the below example, where if I can recall correctly Hermione repairs Harry’s glasses with an Occulus Reparo spell!!

Oculus Reparo - theQuotes.me

Step 5 – Filter for TRUE values

Once the above step is taken, it is a matter of applying a simple filter on your custom column to only show TRUE values. Looking at the below, I can now see only the lines of dialogue that contain a spell, and now also the name of the actual spell that has been used!! This was what I originally had in mind.

Using this Information

As the Dialogue data sheet contains the movie, chapter, place and character IDs, I can now link the spells to these people and locations!

Next Step

The next step is to now build the visualisation I had in mind to work with this new insight.

Watch this space…..

Expecto Patronum!

Featured

Maven Monthly Challenge – Mexican Restaurant Scouting

It was that time of the month when Maven Analytics set their data playground challenge#mavenrestaurantchallenge. This time it was using 5 separate csv data tables detailing consumer and restaurant data from cities across three states in Mexico during 2012.

The brief was to

  • assume the role of a Lead Analyst that scopes out new restaurant opportunities abroad
  • review and analyse the data provided for interesting patterns and trends
  • develop a single page visual that gives potential investors a good understanding of the market to guide them in making investment decisions
  • post your final proposal on LinkedIn for review by Maven and fellow challengers

My Plan

As the final product was going to be a single page (jpg) being viewed on LinkedIn, it makes sense to keep the visual:

  • Simple and clean with a consistent palette
  • Structured and flowing, telling a progressive story
  • Clear in terms of visibility of graphics and legibility of any text

I landed on asking three simple questions:

  • Who? – who were the key demographic to target in terms of age and smoking/drinking habits
  • Where? – which city or location had the highest ratio of consumers to restaurants
  • What? – what kind of cuisine should a restaurant serve based on popularity and levels of current availability

My Solution

I decided to use Tableau for this challenge to try out some newly acquired skills. The below was my final proposal posted on LinkedIn, as well as on my Tableau Public Account

I will share some tips on how I made a few of the visuals in a follow up blog. If anyone reading has any queries on any part of the visual or it’s development, drop me a comment, and I’ll be happy to provide further detail.

Happy Analysing!

Featured

Welcome to DG Analysis

Hello, and welcome to DG Analysis, a look into the varied world of data analysis and the tools used to present it.

My interest in data analytics has spawned from a ‘side-hustle’ at work which has led me from the basics of simple excel spreadsheets to the world of Power BI DAX and Tableau, and most things in between.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Join me in looking at varied content from the world of politics to sports, stocks and currencies, and seeing how platforms such as Power BI and Tableau can be used to provide insight into potentially unseen trends.

My Data Analysis Portfolio

Introduction

From reading a lot of data viz experts and tutors comments on platforms such as LinkedIn, one recommendation that keeps popping up is that any aspiring or practising “visualizer” should maintain a portfolio of work to showcase the skills and breadth of work that they may have.

I have taken that advice, and put together this portfolio style blog. Most of the visualizations that I create in a professional field are not something that I can necessarily share in the public domain, therefore I am opting to showcase the fun challenges and trials I have taken part in over the last 6-8 months.

These mostly include the Maven Analytics challenges, and are mostly performed in Power BI, although there are a few Tableau examples in there too.

I have decided to post the visualizations in reverse chronological order for each section, to (hopefully) show some kind of progress in technique and presentation.

I will keep this “live” as a repository for my public displays.

Maven Challenges

The details for all these challenges can be found here.

Maven Unicorn Challenge

This challenge was between April and May 2022, and used a summary dataset looking at the valuation, funding, location and investors involved in global unicorns – the $1bn+ privately owned companies, and not the other fantasy figures!

The brief was to illustrate the global landscape of unicorns, and below is my proposed report, which was posted on LinkedIn as usual.

Maven Remote Work Challenge – FINALIST (2nd)

This challenge took place during March 2022. It involved analysing the results of two comprehensive surveys which posed over 100 questions to in excess of 1,500 people on the subject of remote working both during and after the recent COVID pandemic lockdowns in NSW, Australia.

I had to provide advice on a proposed remote working policy in a post-COVID world, and translate the qualitative data from the survey to provide quantitative insights into what effects remote work had on productivity and morale. Below is my final report, which was also posted on LinkedIn. I note that I also used this visual in the March SWD challenge.

Power BI

Maven SuperBowl Challenge – FINALIST

The challenge ran from January to February 2022, and involved analysing historical SuperBowl advertising data in order to propose an upcoming advertising strategy for an up and coming car company. My original posting is on LinkedIn.

Power BI

Maven Magic (Harry Potter) Challenge – FINALIST

This challenge ran from December 2021 to January 2022. It involved reviewing the film scripts for the Harry Potter movie series and coming up with a way to visualize the “magic” of the movies.

My submission scored as a Finalist on this challenge (my third in a row), with the critique for my submission recorded here by the team at Maven Analytics. I also created a few of my own videos showing some of the techniques I used in my data prep and analysis.

Power BI

Maven Taxi Challenge – FINALIST

This challenge ran from November to December 2021, and involved following a set criteria on what needed to be presented. This was a real challenge from a data prep point of view, as it encompassed in the region of 27 million line items of journey data.

Because of the complexity of the data load and set of data cleaning steps, I created a video showing my strategy and steps, which has proved to be relatively popular. I made the finals for the second time, which I was very pleased with, and took into account the comments provided by the Maven team.

Power BI

Maven Restaurant Investments Challenge – FINALIST

This challenge ran from October to November 2021. It involved assessing customer and restaurant related data in several cities in Mexico to assist investors in selecting a location and type of restaurant that would prove popular.

This was around the time I was experimenting in Tableau, and decided to use it for this challenge. A good advantage of Tableau, is the public platform allows everyone to visit and fully interact with each visualization or dashboard.

I was pretty chuffed and surprised to make the finals for the first time, and I learned that the use of key questions and summary take-aways were powerful techniques in laying out a presentation.

Tableau

Maven Olympics Challenge – ENTRANT

This challenge ran around the time of the Tokyo Olympics, and was my first foray into the Maven Challenges, after having taken their Excel courses and a few Power BI courses. Instead of using all the data from both the summer and winter games, I decided to focus on only female participation during the summer games only.

Looking back on it now, although I tried to provide some structure and flow, it was quite busy and maybe included too much information. I was quite interested to see the difference in participation between communist and non-communist countries during the cold war.

Looking back, I should have honed in and explored that in more detail. But it was a good introduction, and spurred me on to learn more.

Power BI

storytelling with data

Being an avid listener of the storytelling with data podcast and the book by Cole Nussbaumer Knaflic, I joined their online community to take part in their monthly challenges. These are more “sprint” like challenges when compared to Maven, and are good to hone in on particular aspects of improving visual communication.

February 2002 – Focus and Declutter

This challenge can be found here. The goal here was to take busy and potentially confusing data visual, and apply techniques that are taught by Cole in order to declutter the noise surrounding the visual, and attempt to focus in on the story behind the graph. Removing unnecessary components, and appropriate use of colour to focus, I wanted to be able to take the following away within 5 seconds of looking at the graph.

  1. Philadelphia is the only city to have a higher crime rate than 1990
  2. Other cities generally have seen reductions in crime rates
  3. New York is the stand out in terms of overall reduction.
Power BI

Dataworld

I had started to look to take part in the Makeover Monday data viz series, but as soon as I started, it ceased to exist! I had thought I would have time to go back and try out the old challenges, but just haven’t had any spare time lately, so there is only one example below.

The datasets are usually quite small when compared to the Maven challenges, so in theory they should be used for “quick” practise.

The Dark Web

This challenge involved looking at the price index for various illegally obtained goods on the dark web.

I used this challenge to practise the use of parameters in Tableau, which I thought was put to relatively good use when I try it out in Tableau Public, as well as trying a kind of “dark mode” background with light coloured text.

Tableau

Other Miscellaneous Work

Social Media

I created some template Power BI dashboards to present the interactions of a fictional company on LinkedIn, as well as Twitter. I used this mostly as practise for Time Intelligence functions. I created an accompanying video and blog, which allowed people to recreate it, and it has been relatively popular.

Power BI

Weather Data

This was quite a simple dashboard put together in Power BI to look at data collected by a weather balloon travelling over Germany. I used this primarily to practise working with geospatial data as well as grouping scatter charts.

Power BI

Sankey Charts

This was in some way related to my work life, as I used it as a pilot to then present at work.

This is a visual rather than a full dashboard, but I had thought that Sankey Charts would be a good way of visualising the change in risk status before and after mitigating steps were applied.

I also learned how to use particular DAX functions to create the necessary data table structure to utilise the Sankey Chart visual in Power BI. Again, I created an accompanying video and blog, which I still see people interacting with most days.

Where it all began!

This is where it began about 9 months ago in mid 2021. As I was taking the basic Tableau course with Maven Analytics, I began to experiment with some data I picked up. In this instance it was the great debate of Ronaldo vs Messi.

Looking back now, I can see plenty of little touches I could make to improve or other ways I could display this, but it is also a good reminder of the journey taken, mostly with Maven, in the last 9 months!

Tableau

So, if anyone is looking for inspiration to create their own portfolio, or see what improvements you can make to your visuals inside a few months, hopefully you can find it here.

Good luck, and keep vizzing!

Sankey Chart and SUMMARIZECOLUMNS in Power BI

Walkthrough

I have created a walkthrough video of how to use SUMMARIZECOLUMNS in DAX to create a multilevel Sankey Chart in Power BI. Here is a link to the video, and I will describe some of the steps and calculations performed in the following paragraphs

Background

Quite a lot of the content surrounding Power BI typically involves some kind of transactional data recording sales, costs, profits, etc. I get that BI stands for Business Intelligence, therefore most of the content will be centred around how a business performs.

However, there are many other avenues that Power BI can be utilised for. I have worked in the Engineering, Construction and Legal fields, and have seen many potential applications that I am hoping to explore. I am looking at how I can possibly apply samples of datasets that I typically work with to create interesting analysis and visuals.

Risk Analysis and Sankey Charts

One such possibility is using data from Risk Analysis and Assessments and applying that to a custom visual like a Sankey Chart. Risk is often assessed by considering how likely a risk is to occur (Likelihood) versus it’s potential Consequence. Below is a typical matrix you may find that is used in many industries, including Construction.

Typically you will perform an assessment of the “Raw” risk; that is a risk that you have not yet taken any steps to reduce or “mitigate”. You will then have a Raw Risk score that can be classified according the above matrix.

Next, you would consider steps or controls that could reduce that risk, and effectively mitigate it. Once that has been documented, you can relook at the risk likelihood and consequence score, and reclassify it accordingly.

As such, you will create to scores for a risk:

  • Raw Risk Score
  • Mitigated Risk Score

These can be further classified into their colour rating:

  • Red – Extreme
  • Yellow – High
  • Blue – Medium
  • Green – Low

Having these multiple scores, and discrete classifications makes this kind of data ideal for a Sankey Chart , like that below. You move from an initial Raw Risk, to a Mitigated Risk, and then potentially on to some resulting action.

Data

I created a data template listing 40 Risks, with generic numbering, descriptions and scores. Below is a link to the file.

I then created two matrices in table form to mimic the scores of the above matrix

As per the video, I added a few steps in Power Query to combine the Likelihood and Consequence scores for the Raw and Mitigated Risks (using a “R” and “M” prefix, respectively). This is to differentiate between the two risk scores and allow the Sankey to interpret both as distinct.

After this, I created the model links in Power BI as shown below. This will allow us to create a summarized table using SUMMARIZECOLUMNS to bring in columns from differing tables.

SUMMARIZECOLUMNS

As the Sankey uses only three sets of data (Source, Destination and Weight), we want to recreate a summary table with only that data we want to use. For the Level 1 Sankey, we want to call up:

  • Raw Risk (Source) – from Raw Risk Matrix
  • Mitigated Risk (Destination) – from Mitigated Risk Matrix
  • No. of Risks (Weighting) – from Risk Assessment Register

We can achieve this by using the following DAX code:

SUMMARIZECOLUMNS(
    Raw_Risk[R-Rating],
    Mitigated_Risk[M-Rating],
    "Number of Risks", [No. of Risks]
)

This gives us the following summary table

This will give a single level for the Sankey, but if we want to add another level, we need to effectively UNION another date group directly below this. Therefore, we use the same code and duplicate it using a UNION, like the below

Union(
    SUMMARIZECOLUMNS(
    Raw_Risk[R-Rating],
    Mitigated_Risk[M-Rating],
    "Number of Risks", [No. of Risks]
),
SUMMARIZECOLUMNS(
    Mitigated_Risk[M-Rating],
    Mitigated_Risk[Risk Action],
    "Number of Risks", [No. of Risks]
))

This then adds three rows at the bottom, to give us our second level in the Sankey

Building the Sankey

We can now drop the above three column titles into the Source, Destination and Weighting boxes for the Sankey to create it. There is a little manual adjusting required through drag and drop directly on the chart, as you will see in the video. Once you readjust and apply the colour codes you wish through formatting, you can get the below desired affect.

Next Level

If you wish, you can add a few additional steps to take the visual to the next level and create something that could be used in real life (with a little more tidy up, editing and adding to an overall dash). You could add cards to calculate the total number of mitigated risks by level, and maybe add some links to some separate pages where you could have drill down detail, like that shown below.

Card Code

The DAX code for those cards is shown below. It can be recreated for each level by simply replacing the Rating text.

Thanks

Thanks for reading, if you liked this example of using non-commerce type data in Power BI, let me know either in the video or comments below, or on LinkedIn. If there are other types of data or visualizations you would be interested in seeing, let me know.

Gerard – DG Analysis.

Social Media Dashboard – Power BI

Overview

I have created a walkthrough so that you can use just 6 DAX formula to develop data extracted from your social media accounts into a metrics dashboard like that below, whether that be LinkedIn, Twitter, blog accounts or your own website.

Sample Fictional Data from LinkedIn Corporate Account
LinkedIn Metrics Dashboard developed in Power BI

A Youtube video of this walkthrough is linked here. Some of you may have come here after viewing it – thanks, and welcome! I will get down to what you came here for…

6 Key Metric DAX Formula

From the video, you will see that I used six key DAX expressions or formula again and again to create a comprehensive set of metrics to allow you to develop the dashboard. Here they are in order of development.

Totals

Total LinkedIn New Followers = 
SUM(LinkedIn_Data[LinkedIn New Followers])

You can use SUMX in lieu of SUM if you wish here, noting you will need to provide a table and expression in lieu of a column.

Year to Date (YTD)

LinkedIn New Followers YTD = 
TOTALYTD(
    [Total LinkedIn New Followers],
    LinkedIn_Data[Date]
)

Latest Month (MTD)

LinkedIn New Followers This Month = 
Calculate(
    [Total LinkedIn New Followers],
    LASTDATE(LinkedIn_Data[Date])
)

Previous Month

LinkedIn Followers Previous Month = 
Calculate(
    SUM(LinkedIn_Data[LinkedIn New Followers])
    ,PREVIOUSMONTH(LinkedIn_Data[Date]
    )
)

Month Over Month Difference


LinkedIn Followers Diff MoM = 
VAR CurrentS = Sum(LinkedIn_Data[LinkedIn New Followers])
VAR PreviousS = [LinkedIn Followers Previous Month]
VAR Result = CurrentS - PreviousS
Return
    Result

Month Over Month % Growth

LinkedIn Followers MoM Growth % = 
Divide(
    [LinkedIn Followers Diff MoM],
    [LinkedIn Followers Previous Month]
)

Bonus – Last Date

One simple bonus DAX formula that will extract the latest date in your date table. This is useful for title blocks and banners in you reports and dashs, as it will automatically update when you add your monthly data.

Latest Date = 
LASTDATE(
    LinkedIn_Data[Date]
)

Resulting Data

Once I have developed a set of calculations, I like to test them in a matrix to make sure they have the desired outcome. This is what I have done below. You can then be confident that the cards and visuals you create accurately reflect your data set.

Resulting DAX calculations with verification table showing outcomes

Comments and Feedback

If you have any comments, feedback, or requests, please let me know below or leave a comment on my Youtube channel.

Thanks

Datasets

Power Query – Nested If/And/Or Statements

This is a brief follow on to my earlier blog on the Maven Analytics NYC Taxi challenge, and cleaning well over 25 million line items of data in Power Query, before developing a Power BI dashboard. In particular, I am looking at amending an “If/And” statement to become a nested “If/Or/And” statement.

One of the cleaning steps involved looking at values in multiple columns to check that if they were ALL negative, then we should change each value to a positive (multiply by -1).

Original M Code

To do the above, my original M Code involved adding a new column which returned a statement based on a set of IF/AND statements

= Table.AddColumn(#"Changed Type", "negative_charges", 
each if [fare_amount] <0 and 
[extra] <0 and 
[mta_tax] <0 and 
[improvement_surcharge] <0 and 
[congestion_surcharge] <0 then 
"all negative" else 
"ok")

This effectively adds a new column called “negative charges”, with each row value being returned as either “all negative” or “ok” based on the if statements.

So, if the fare amount, extra, mta tax, improvement surcharge AND congestion surcharge were ALL negative for that particular journey, then the result would be “all negative”.

However, if one or more were greater than or equal to zero, they would be deemed “ok”. This would allow us to then amend values in rows which were only calculated as “all negative”.

Minor Problem

It was pointed out to me however, that the [congestion surcharge] may also contain ‘null’ values. These would not be considered in the above calculation. Typically, we may consider ‘null’ to equal zero, therefore it would not matter; however for these surcharges, ‘null’ may mean that the surcharge was not being applied at that time.

Therefore, I had to look at amending the M code to accommodate this.

Updated M Code Solution

In the end, the amendment is not so complicated, but you can create a nested conditional statement by wrapping it in parentheses – see below amended M code. This allows you to check for multiple Or and And conditions and return the appropriate result.

= Table.AddColumn(#"Changed Type", "All Negative Check", 
each if ([fare_amount] <0 or [fare_amount] = null) and 
([extra] <0 or [extra] = null) and
([mta_tax] <0 or [mta_tax] = null) and
([improvement_surcharge] <0 or [improvement_surcharge] = null) and 
([congestion_surcharge] <0 or [congestion_surcharge] = null) then 
"all negative" else 
"ok")

If you want to see this in action, I have created a short walk through on my youtube channel here.

Power Query – Mega Clean – Taxi Challenge

Summary

This is a walkthrough of the cleaning I undertook on excess of 25 million lines of data as part of the #maventaxichallenge , which is the monthly data visualization challenge set up by Maven Analytics. This month the challenge involved looking at detailed NYC Taxi data between 2017 and 2020 and developing a usable single page dashboard to analyze weekly trends.

Details of the challenge can be found here. This includes the data files being provided and the requirements for cleaning and presenting the data. I have also created a walkthrough of the below on a video link if you want to see it in live action.

Plan

My plan was fairly simple but structured:

  1. Write a clear list of the cleaning steps linked back to the data dictionary
  2. Create a Data Sample
  3. Apply the cleaning steps to the sample and verify
  4. Copy out the M Code for each step
  5. Load the full data set and apply the M Code for each step

Step 1 – Cleaning List

So, the following were the steps required, and what that translated into using the data dictionary:

Cleaning RequestData Dictionary Translation
Let’s stick to trips that were NOT sent via “store and forward”store_and_fwd_flag = N
I’m only interested in street-hailed trips paid by card or cash, with a standard ratetrip_type = 1 ,
payment_type = 1 or 2,
RatecodeID = 1
We can remove any trips with dates before 2017 or after 2020lpep_pickup_datetime = between 01/01/2017 and 31/12/2020 lpep_dropoff_datetime = between 01/01/2017 and 31/12/2020
…along with any trips with pickups or drop-offs in unknown zonesPULocationID <> blank/empty
DOLocationID <>blank/empty
Let’s assume any trips with no recorded passengers had 1 passengerIf passenger_count = 0 or null, then replace the 0 with 1
If a pickup date/time is AFTER the drop-off date/time, let’s swap themIf lpep_pickup_datetime > lpep_dropoff_datetime
then lpep_dropoff_datetime
else lpep_pickup_datetime

if lpep_dropoff_datetime < lpep_pickup_datetime
then lpep_pickup_datetime
else lpep_dropoff_datetime
We can remove trips lasting longer than a day, and any trips which show both a distance and fare amount of zeroadd column
lpep_dropoff_datetimelpep_pickup_datetime
then filter out values >= 24 hours

if trip_distance AND fare_amount = 0
then filter out values
If you notice any records where the fare, taxes and surcharges are ALL negative, please make them positiveif fare_amount <0
and mta_tax <0
and extra <0
and improvement_surcharge <0
and congestion_surcharge <0
then “all negative”
else “ok”

then apply “trick” replacement to change values (see below for more detail)
For any trips that have a fare amount but have a trip distance of 0, calculate the distance this way: (Fare amount – 2.5)/2.5If fare_amount > 0
And trip_distance = 0
Then ((Fare amount – 2.5) / 2.5)
Else trip_distance
For any trips that have a trip distance but have a fare amount of 0, calculate the fare amount this way: 2.5 + (trip distance x 2.5)If trip_distance > 0
And fare_amount = 0
Then (2.5 + (trip_distance x 2.5))
Else fare_amount
Cleaning Requests and Action Steps

Step 2 – Create Data Sample

It would be next to impossible to apply the steps to over 25 million lines of data and then easily verify that all the filters, additions, replacements and modifications had taken place and you got the results you were looking for.

A much more digestible method is to recreate a sample data set based on the data we were provided, and ensure that at least one example of each cleaning step scenario listed above is included.

To do this, I took the smallest file (2020), and performed a series of deduplications on values across the locations, passenger numbers, etc. so that I was able to get a small sample of approximately 50 varied line items.

Then, in order to recreate some of the cleaning scenarios, I made minor adjustments to some values. e.g. swap the drop off and pick up times. Above is the resulting sample data set.

Step 3 – Apply Cleaning Steps to Sample and Verify

Next, I created a new PowerBI file, uploaded the sample data set and then moved to edit the set in Power Query.

Sample data in Power Query

After performing the usual steps on checking data types (text, date, time, numbers, etc) have been applied, it was then a case of applying each cleaning step, and working through. For example, the first step became: =Table.SelectRows(#”Changed Type”, each [store_and_fwd_flag] = “N”)

M Code Replace Hack

There is one hack that is really worth highlighting here, and will save some added columns and processing time in your Power Query tasks, especially in larger data sets. The below gallery shows a snapshot of each step, but here is a brief description:

  • Create a “Dummy Replace” step for the column you which to replace values on.
    • Select the Transform ribbon, and click on Replace Values (picture 1)
    • Choose two dummy values to replace that would not be values in your column. As an example here, I chose replace 5000 with 6000 (picture 2), where most values would actually be single digit values in that column.
    • Click OK, and you will see the M code in the formula box at the top (picture 3)
  • Create a “Dummy Custom Column” step to allow you to write the conditional statement you want to insert into your Dummy Replace code
    • Select the Add Column ribbon, and click on Custom Column (picture 4)
    • use intellisense to help you write the conditional statement you wish to create (picture 5)
    • Copy the statement, and click cancel. This way you are not creating an additional column.
  • Return to your Dummy Replace step and perform the following:
    • For the first value (5000), amend this value to refer to the column you want to replace values in, and precede it with “each”.
    • In this example, I replace 5000 with each [fare_amount]
    • For the second value (6000), amend this value to refer to the conditional statement you want to apply to the selected column, and again precede it with “each”.
    • In this example. I replace 6000 with each if [negatives_charges] = “all negative” then [fare_amount]*-1 else [fare_amount]
  • Once you hit return, the replacement of values occurs within the column, without the need to create an additional column. This will increase efficiency for any refreshes.

If you are interested, the “normal language” logic behind this step is:

  • For each row value in the the column fare_amount, if the corresponding row in the negative_charges column is equal to “all negative”, then we would like to multiply the fare_amount by -1, thus changing it from a negative to a positive value. Else, if it is not “all negative”, then just keep the fare_amount value as it is (no change).

Step 4 – Copy out M Code

Once you have gone through each of the steps on your sample set and verified that it has had the desired effect on you line items, you will now have the list of steps under your Applied Steps on the right hand side of the Power Query interface. A good tip is to rename these steps based on your need (e.g. Change Negative Values or Swap Dates). This will help when you want to copy steps to use in the full data set.

You can see a list of this information in the Advanced Editor Window (see below). This can be copy and pasted out and saved for future use.

If you click on each step you will see the corresponding M code just above your data table.

Advanced Editor showing M Code Steps

There is another way that I learned from the Curbal Youtube page, which is pretty powerful. I wont repeat all the steps here, but here is a link to the tutorial.

Step 5 – Apply to Full Data Set

Now that you have your all your steps and code written, tested and verified, it is now a pretty straight forward proposition to apply them to your full data set.

An easy way to add steps, is to right-click on a step then select “Insert Step After” (see below). This will then allow you to paste in the M code that you have saved. One tip is to check the step reference. It will refer to the name of the preceding step. Therefore make sure you do that in the first instance. For following steps, it should be easy to use your copied values from the sample data, provided you use the same names for your steps.

Insert Step

Once you have completed all your steps, you are done – all that’s left to save is Apply and Close.

The “trial and error” approach is removed, which means that when Power BI applies the updates to the 25 + million line items, you can be reasonably confident you will not have to revisit your Power Query. This is important here, as with such large data sets, the updates can sometimes take hours to complete depending on your computer’s processing capabilities.

You are now free to move on to the next part of the challenge and concentrate on creating you DAX calculations and a nice neat dashboard.

If I have time to finish my dashboard on this one, I will add it on a future post. As always, any comments or queries, please let me know in the comments below!

5 Quick Tips for next level BAN in Tableau

Everyone loves a BAN (Big Aggregate Number). They are your all important key numbers in your dataset and should be jumping off the screen and and ingraining themselves in the back of your retinas!

But the standard way of creating them in Tableau can be a bit dull and monochrome.

Below I’ll step through the usual way of creating a set of BAN, followed by 5 quick tips to take them up a level in a recent dashboard I created as part of a Maven challenge

Standard BAN Creation

Normally, you will have a relatively small set of categories that you wish to show an aggregate value for (example being “Age Group” below.

We traditionally create this by dragging the category (Age Group) into the columns, then pulling the calculation into Text marks area.


Voila! We have a BAN. Not very pretty, but a BAN all the same.

You can adjust the header and value for font type, size and colour. Normally, that is about as far as most people go.

What’s the alternative?

But hey – what if you want your BAN in a single horizontal or vertical line, or you want to colour code based on the category or value?

What can we do to customise our BAN and make it that little more memorable?

5 Simple Tips to go from “Boring BAN” to “Badass BAN”

1. Orientation

It is easy to change from a single horizontal to a vertical line, by simply dragging the category from column to rows. This allows you to maximise your data real estate depending on how how you are structuring your overall visuals.

2. Headers

We can drop a duplicate category “Age Group” onto the Text marks card. Then right click on the category header and select remove. This will result in the second image below – still not too pretty, but we are on our way.

You can keep the category above or below the BAN by shifting it up or down on the marks card.

However, my preference is to keep it below, as it keeps the focus on your Big Number!

3. Font

Many people may have different views, but my preference is to keep a single font on a dashboard. Having multiple fonts can become an unwanted distraction and give a clunky look.

4. Size

For the numbers, bigger is better!! Make the size of the numbers much larger than any adjacent text to emphasize the contrast.

To do this, select the Text icon in the marks card, and click on the three little dots on the side.


This will bring up the “edit label” input box. Here you can adjust the size and font attributes (bold, underline, italic).
In my example, I chose 36 for the Aggregate Number and 16 for the underlying category.

5. Colour

Adding some colour can help place emphasis on numbers or categories, and help improve the aesthetics and feel of your visual.

Ctrl dropping the category onto the colour mark would allow you to assign distinct colours based on each category, whereas Ctrl dropping the calculations “CNT(Consumers)” onto the colour mark will allow you to assign colour.

You can also maybe apply a quick table calculation. Here I opted to show a % of total, rather than the straight numbers. This gives a good overall perspective. As shown in the below picture, you can right click on the aggregate number and select the quick table calculation.


Lastly, in my example, I opted for adjusting the colour based on the BAN value itself. As I wanted to draw the eye to the highest value, I used a diverging scale from a green (#00aa00) to a white, which was offset at -20%. This enabled my lowest value to still be almost visible, while keeping the focus squarely on the largest number.

Overall

I was pretty happy with the outcome, and was able to apply the same effect to two sets of BAN. This helped maintain the overall important consistency and look when they were brought into the main dashboard.

What do you think?

As always, if there are any questions or comments, please reach out. I am happy to help where I can, and always open to feedback on alternative methods and learning new tricks from the data fam.

Happy Analysing – DG